What is the DISC model? The DISC Model of Human Behavior describes the four basic temperament types: (Choleric) D-type, (Sanguine) I-type, (Phlegmatic) S-type, and (Melancholy) C-type. Everyone is a blend of DISC behavior. No normal person has a bad personality. It's what you do with your DISC personality that may be good or bad. Identifying your DISC personality blend/s is vital to effective leadership and relationships.
"I" - Active/People -oriented
"S" - Passive/People -oriented
Historical Background of the DISC Personality Types and Profiles
The 4 Temperament Model of Human Behavior was first introduced by Hippocrates 400 years before Christ. He thought the four "humours" had something to do with the chemical makeup and color of the bile in the blood. Around 190 BC, Galen identified four classic types: Choleric, Sanguine, Phlegmatic, and Melancholy Types to describe human behavior and personality insights. In 1928, William Marston changed the old Greek titles to: Dominant, Inspirational, Submissive, and Compliant.
The DISC Personality Types is now perhaps the most popular of all the models. Dr. Mels Carbonell created one of the most comprehensive online DISC computer profiles on his site: http://www.uniquelyyou.net . Dr. John Geier created the first paper instrument, the Performax Personal Profile System in 1977 focusing on the DISC types. Performax was eventually sold to the Carlson Learning Company (2800 Series) and again sold to InScape Publishing.
The Keirsey Temperament Sorter and Keirsey / Bates Profile also focuses on the 4 Temperament Model, but is much less popular. David Keirsey combined two of the eight types into four distinct temperament categories. His sixteen personality types, much like the Myers / Briggs assessment, describe the most common human behavior types.
The problem with most Human Behavior Science assessments is that they tend to be overwhelming and too complicated. It is very difficult to remember 8 different letters with 16 various combinations. Focusing on 4 different "D, I, S, & C" letters is much more practical and simple. Using easier to remember letters as opposed to the ancient titles is better.
The old Greek titles were popularized by Dr. Tim LaHaye in his Best Seller, The Spiritual Controlled Temperament and in Florence Littaur's book, Personality Plus. The old Greek titles have become less popular and appealing than the DISC letters, because of their archaic negativity. The term "choleric" means "angry," plus being identified as a "moody melancholy" or "flip phlegmatic" is not very appealing. The title "Phlegmatic" also comes from Hippocrates' teaching that this personality type is associated with the "phlem" or "flem" body fluid and chemical makeup of the blood.
The 4 Temperaments have been critiziced by skeptics and self-proclaimed authorities in religious circles because of temperament types are similar to the Horoscope. Since astrology and the 4 Temperament Types both describe specific behavior, they seem to be alike. But nothing could be further from the truth. Astrology is a false science, while Astronomy is a true and validated science. For every truth there is a counterfeit and the closer the conterfeit looks like the truth, the more dangerous it becomes. Just because astrological characters and certain behavioral patterns seem similar to the 4 temperaments does not mean that the DISC Model of Human Behavior or 4 Temperaments are associated with astrology or the horoscope.
The great scientist, Isaac Newton, considered to be the father of modern science, wrote "Celestrial Mechanics" in 1666 where he destroyed any notion of astrology. He emphatically said the stars are fixed in the heavens and are going to be where they are going to be when they are going to be where they are going to be. In other words, the alignment of stars can never predict the future or describe personality types. The horoscope is a fable and not validated by the scientific method, while the 4 Temperaments are observable and repeatable. Many theories and assessments have arisen to explain why people do what they do.
One of the most popular personality profiles is the Myers / Briggs Type Indicator. It uses 8 different letters to create 16 different types, rather than the more simple 4 DISC letters. The Uniquely You Profile was one of the first profiles created after the Performax Personal Profile. Since then several "similar" profiles have been created by those trained by Dr. Carbonell. Two of the most similar profiles were created by Dr. Robert Rohm, Personality-Insights and Jay McSwain, PLACE Ministries.
Ken Vogus was the first to design a DISC Personality Profile that focused on biblical characters. His DISCovering the Leadership Styles of Jesus was originally published by Performax Learning Systems as the Biblical Personal Profile. Another similar profile is published by the Institute For Motivation Living and Institute For Leadership Training, Sandy Kulkin, President and Founder.
Dr. Mels Carbonell was the first to combine Spiritual Gifts with the 4 DISC Personality Types. His Uniquely You Combination Spiritual Gifts and Personalities Profile is one of, if not the most popular faith-based assessment available today. He presented his Combination Spiritual Gifts and DISC Personality Profile at Saddleback Church with Pastor Rick Warren. Saddleback and Rick Warren have popularized the SHAPE Model for ministry. Many ministries and organizations now use personality profiles to improve team building, new member assimilation, networking, leadership, conflict resolution, relationships, teens, parenting styles, communication styles, and ministry involvement.
Dr. Mels Carbonell is one of the earliest pioneers in personality profiling, spiritual gifts training, and ministry placement based on one's SHAPE and human behavior science. He offers seminars, certification training, coaching, and personal consultating to those who want to improve their effectiveness as leaders, parents, mates, teachers, professionals, managers, supervisors, employers, and employees.
"D" Behavior / Biblical Example: Paul & Sarah
Basic Motivation: Challenge & Control
Desires: Freedom from Control - Authority - Varied Activities - Difficult Assignments - Opportunities for Advancement - Choices rather than ultimatums
Respond Best To Leader Who: provides direct answers - Sticks to task - Gets to the point - Provides pressure - Allows freedom for personal accomplishments
Needs to Learn: You need people - Relaxation is not a crime - Some controls are needed - Everyone has a boss - Self-control is most important - To focus on finishing well is important - Sensitivity to people's feelings is wise
Service: Organize/Lead ministries, teams or committees, commit to a specific challenge, teach, plan, advocate, pray
Biblical Advice: Be gentle/not bossy (James 3:17); Control feelings/actions (Eph. 4:26); Focus on one thing (Phil. 3:13); Develop a servant's heart (Gal. 5:13)
"I" Behavior / Biblical Example: Peter & Ruth
Basic Motivation: Recognition & Approval
Desires: Prestige - Friendly relationships - Freedom from details - Opportunities to help others - Opportunities to motivate others - Chance to verbalize ideas
Respond Best To Leader Who: Is fair and is also a friend - Provides social involvement - Provides recognition of abilities - Offers rewards for risk-taking
Needs to Learn: Time must be managed - Deadlines are important - Too much optimism can be dangerous - Being responsible is more important than being popular - Listening better will improve one's influence
Service: Public speaker, drama, social committees, greeter, counselor, encourager, lead groups, visitation, information
Biblical Advice: Be humble/Avoid pride (James 3:17); Control your tongue (James 1:19); Be organized (1 Cor 14:40); Be patient (Gal 5:23)
"S" Behavior / Biblical Example: Moses & Hannah
Basic Motivation: Stability & Support
Desires: Area of Specialization - Identification with a group's established work patterns - Security of situation - Consistent and familiar environment(s)
Responds Best To Leader Who: Is relaxed and friendly - Allows time to adjust to changes - Allows to work at own pace - Gives personal support
Needs to Learn: Change provides opportunity - Friendship isn't everything - Discipline is good - Boldness and taking risks is sometimes necessary
Service: On call, visitation, counsel, telephone, encourage, office, records, maintenance, grounds, helps, lead groups
Biblical Advice: Be bold/strong (Josh 1:6); Be confident/fearless (2 Tim 1:7); Be more enthusiastic (Col 3:23)
"C" Behavior / Biblical Example: Thomas & Esther
Basic Motivation: Quality & Correctness
Desires: Clearly defined tasks - Details - Limited risks - Tasks that require precision and planning - Time to think
Responds Best To Leader Who: Provides reassurance - Spells out detailed operating procedures - Provides resources to do task correctly - Listens to suggestions
Needs to Learn: Total support is not always possible - Thorough explanation is not everything - Deadlines must be met - More optimism will lead to greater success
Service: Finances, long-range planning, organize, research, count, record, teach, order, file, set-up, sound & video
Biblical Advice: Be positive (Phil 4:8); Avoid critical spirit (Eph 4:11); Be joyful (Gal 5:22); Don't worry (Ps 37:1)